44th SSEAYP (II)

It starts from here. This is our Facebook cover photo.

Officially introducing Cambodian Participating Youths(CPYs) 2017 for SSEAYP 44th!

Thank you Father

Posted date: August 15, 2017


I was encouraged to be a head of Finance team. I was so happy when I heard that because I could ask my PTKL to do everything.


This was the first photo of my contigent. 

Friends till the end


Posted date: August 06, 2017


On 19th September 2017, I realized that I was a Dove. I couldn’t fly high like an Eagle or was happy as a Peacock all the times. I could neither be a ….


From 01st-03rd September 2017, we had a training at Kampot Province for a team building. But on the first day, I gave a birthday gift to my PTKL! He will remember me when he uses it.

ស្គាល់គ្នាយូរហើយ that I have never យកចិត្តទុកដាក់ abt u. This gift អាចជាលើកទីមួយ or the last coz no one knows that ពួកយើងនឹងអាច fight together again

Posted date: 31st August 201721462450_1410556782392888_6168015456094175486_n

One day at Kampot, we played in the mud. 

Pre-wedding ដែល​មាន​អ្នក​កំដរ​ប្រុស​១៤នាក់ និង​ស្រី​១៤​នាក់ ពាក់​សុទ្ធ​តែ​ខោអាវ​ថ្លៃ​ លំ​ដាប់​ផ្គាយ​ប្រាំ​ក៏​រក​មិន​បាន។


Such a wonderful memory at Kampot 01-03 September 2017
#SSEAYPUnexpected with you!
Thank you Father!

Posted date: September 04, 2017


One night there, we shared our feeling. Unexpectably that I was one of his memory. Vis-versa!


We planted mangrove tree together at there too. 

This mangrove tree can be part of my National Reconciliation through Nature too!

No tree will die or cut!

#SSEAYPUnexpected with you!


Posted date: 16th September 2017


After Kampot province, we went to Siem Reap province to conduct our Introductory Video (IV). I take part in the 60th Century where he is not. I got no chance to see him and so did he. 


That’s all for today. 

Many bad news. I am in DG 7 “Resilient and Sustainable City Design” where he is in DG4. We promise to stick together. In fact, everything is not in our hand. I start to feel that we have a contradict idea. Even though we walk or work together, there is a hidden wall between us. It’s because I am a Christian and his sister. 

មិត្តភាព​ល្អ​យ៉ាង​ណា​ ក៏​នៅ​តែ​ដូច​ជា​ចាន​មួយ​រាវ​ ដែល​ប៉ះ​ទង្គិច​គ្នា​ដ​ដែល។​

Thank you Father that I have an idea to find a middle way.

វា​ជា​ការ​ងារ​របស់​ខ្ញុំ​ ខ្ញុំ​ជា​អ្នក​ធ្វើ​

Posted date: 13th September 2017


ប៉ះ​អ្នក​ទី​១ យល់​ថា​សើមៗ ឯទី២​វិញ​ បែរ​ជា​ក្តៅ​ៗ ចុះ​អ្នក​ទី​៣​ ប្រ​ហែល​ជា​ត្រជាក់​ហើយ​មើល​ទៅ! ស្អែក​បាន​ដឹង។​ ម្យ៉ាង​ដែរ។

Posted date: 14th September 2017

I am in the DG 7 “Resilient and Sustainable City Design”. Thank you Father. By your grace, I can connect this group with my National Reconciliation through Nature.

Posted date: 15th September 2017

Anyway, thank for sitting next to me, close to me, by my side for this last fight and memory! 

Henna Mao (17/09/2017) 🙂
Love Nature As Yourself




44th SSEAYP (I)

SSEAYP stands for The Ship for Southeast Asian Youth Program. Its main purpose is to promote friendship and mutual understanding among the Japanese and Southeast Asian youths.

I was hesitated in applying for that event. Anyway, this 2017 is my last chance. If I didn’t apply, I would have no more chance.

You know, while completing the application form, I came across with these three questions. It was such an inspiring question that motivated me to join this program.

  1. Describe the reasons why you want to participate in the program:

To be one of the Cambodian youth ambassadors is my main reason to join this program. I like promoting my culture and joining a discussion on social and youth matters. Moreover, I have never experienced staying on a ship or a home stay abroad. Lastly, as the next generation of the Khmer Rouge regime, I play a role as a model youth to other ASEAN’s youth members. I wish I can share my national reconciliation through nature’s concept and I hope they would feel proud of myself who was born as Cambodian.

  1. Describe your expectation of joining the program:

I wish I can build a strong network internally and externally. As known, this program is like a center where ASEAN youth ambassadors gather. Everyone has different strong personality and background. Due to a life on a ship, we are able to share our dream in contributing to our country and we will learn from each other. Moreover, I expect I can survive on the sea by avoiding homesick, seasick, or upset stomach. I expect my personal skill has been strengthen through team work. I am more confident, creative, initiative, positive and flexible. At last, from this program, I expect I can learn from a discussion on social and youth matters and I can get involved in community service and experience a unique home stay programme at each country.

  1. Describe your contributions to Cambodia after returning from the program:

I have got involved in many community services such as green lady cloth pads, cleaning up city (Let’s do it 2012) organized by JCI Cambodia, youth build volunteer organized by Habitat for Humanity Cambodia, HealthUnity project supported by VolCam, tree planting (Let’s Plant!) organized by JCI Chaktomuk, charity event organized by Help Our Community Club and so on. I do believe that after returning from the program, in cooperation with other ASEAN youth ambassadors, Lead Co-Lawyers section and Victim Support Section, as a symbol of peace, reconciliation and remembrance of the death and/or the Khmer rouge regime, the Tree (the tree of struggle, the tree of remembrance, the tree of pardon, the tree of love and the tree of reconciliation) could be planted at cooperative sites, executive sites, security centers and other necessary areas in Cambodia within a specific period of time. Such tree could also be planted specially at the campus of the Khmer Rouge Tribunal, school/university, ministry, Khmer Rouge’s memorial sites, or along the street and public/private garden in Cambodia. Peace, reconciliation and remembrance will be found in National Reconciliation through Nature because we all love nation and nature as ourselves.

Now, I’m here. I’m the 44th SSEAYP, batch 2017. I am blessed to be part of SSEAYP family. Unbelievable! I am the oldest. Anyway, I’m still 20 years old.

Can you find me in this photo?


I’m here with my boy-friend whom I’ve known since 2012, Year I, IFL (RUPP). We have come across with many challenges during our study at IFL (RUPP), research competitions and social work. He is a good friend and a partner. Thank for joining another fight with me.

Thank you Father that I have one to walk with me from 09th July – 12 December 2017. He is like my NaCello.

Looking forward to have fun time and face challenges with all of you.

God bless,

Henna Mao (12/07/2017)

Love Nature As Yourself  😀 😀 😀




Today, I see him with a girl. He sats so close to her. I presume that she is his girlfriend. He told me that he had nobody. He didn’t want to think about love when he was studying. In fact, he was a Liar. He lies to me.

I thought he was single and available that’s why I always try to get close to him. I am so disappointed at this moment. I really want to cry but I can’t cry here, at this public place.

A Liar is a Liar. I trust him so much. I always think of him. I put him in my priority list. Today, if I don’t see him with my own eyes, I wouldn’t believe in myself. He breaks my heart. Maybe he doesn’t know that I loves him so much. Because of him, I don’t care about my surroundings. I don’t care about the age, my Heavenly Father, money, status or else. I just want to be with him. I always have hope when he is by my side.

It’s wrong. I shall not make such a big mistake. Thank you Father for telling me this truth. I am so sad. I feel so bad. My Ice Cream is a Liar.

It’s not a shame to tell me that he has somebody in his heart. I don’t mind to know that. But now, you make me feel so bad. I hate you. I hate you so much. I don’t want to keep in touch with you anymore. I will stop thinking of you. I will stop putting you in my priority list.

You are a Liar, Ice Cream.

Henna Mao (26/02/2017) 😦

Love Nature As Yourself

The Relationship between Traffic Congestion and Paucity of Self- discipline, Occurs Particularly on the Road Section of Preah Monivong Blvd. —Calmette Hospital to Canadia Tower Stop

Traffic congestion becomes the concern in many main cities such as in Mexico city, Istanbul, and Bangkok. By the way, such issue also exists in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

Among all the eleven boulevards, Preah Monivong Blvd. has been observed as one of the most congested area, outstandingly from the Canadia Tower Stop to Calmette Hospital. However, there has not yet been a study talking about causes, impacts and solutions to that area. Therefore, this study aims to (1) investigate the extent commuters’ conduct cause the congestion, particularly on the road section of Preah Monivong Blvd. —Calmette Hospital to Canadia Tower Stop; (2) pinpoint the negative impacts; (3) anticipate the possible suggested solutions.

Methodologically, a set of questionnaire and in-depth interview paper were prepared to conduct with 250 sample size, but only 214, in reality, were eligibly chosen.

As the result, the noticeable culprits inducing people misconduct towards traffic congestion are presented:

Table 1: Demographic Characteristics of participants

Characteristics Number (Percentage %)
Mean Age : 23.24 years
Age 15-20 years old 58 (27.10%)
21-25 years old 104 (48.60%)
26-30 years old 34 (19.60%)
31-35 years old 15 (7.00%)
36-40 years old 2 (0.90%)
41-45 years old 1 (0.50%)
Sex Male 113 (52.80%)
Female 101 (47.20%)
Marital Status Single 179 (83.60%)
Married 35 (16.40%)
Occupation Government Officer 37 (17.30%)
Private staff 58 (27.10%)
Student 119 (55.60%)
Transportation Bike 5 (2.30%)
Motobike 164 (76.60%)
Car 42 (19.60%)
Romork 1 (0.50%)
Bus 1 (0.50%)
Others 1 (0.50%)

Continue reading

បញ្ហា​​កក​ស្ទះ​​ចរាចរណ៍​នៅ​ស្ពាន​អា​កាស​ក្បាល​ថ្នល់​(Traffic congestion at Kbal Knal Skybridge area)


ស្ពានអាកាសក្បាលថ្នល់ត្រូវបានសង់ឡើង ដើម្បីសម្រួលការកកស្ទះចរាចរណ៍។ ប៉ុន្តែបញ្ហាដែលកើតឡើងជារៀងរាល់ថ្ងៃ គឺមិនស្ថិតនៅលើស្ពានទេ តែនៅខាងក្រោមស្ពានទៅវិញ។

តាមការកត់សម្គាល់ នៅពេលល្ងាច ការកកស្ទះកើតមានខ្លាំងនៅចន្លោះ ម៉ោង ៥ – ៧ ល្ងាច ។ បញ្ហាកកស្ទះនេះ កើតមានយ៉ាងវែងអន្លាយ ហើយកើតមានត្រង់៖

១) ផ្លូវ ២៧១ (យុទ្ធពលខេមរភូមិន្ទ) សំដៅទៅស្ពាន ព្រះមុន្នីវង្ស (ស្ពានច្បារអំពៅ) ឬផ្លូវជាតិ២ (រូបទី១)

២) ការឆ្លងពីមហាវិថីព្រះមុន្នីវង្សទៅផ្លូវតេជោសម្តេច ហ៊ុន សែន កាត់តាមស្ថានីយ៍ប្រេងឥន្ធនៈ សូគីមិច (រូបទី២)

៣) ការបត់ត្រឡប់របស់អ្នកបើកបរ ដែលចុះពីស្ពាន ព្រះមុន្នីវង្ស (ស្ពានច្បារអំពៅ) ឬ ចេញពីមហាវិថីព្រះនរោត្តម (រូបទី៣)

៤) មហាវិថីព្រះមុន្នីវង្សទៅស្ពាន ព្រះមុន្នីវង្ស (ស្ពានច្បារអំពៅ) ឬផ្លូវជាតិ២ (រូបទី៤)

៥) ផ្សេងៗ

តាមការកត់សម្គាល់ ការកកស្ទះនេះ មានកត្តាជាច្រើនដែលបណ្តាលឲ្យមានការកកស្ទះ តួយ៉ាង៖

១) ភ្លើងស្តុបនៅម្តុំច្រមុះជ្រូក មួយផ្នែកដំណើរការ មួយផ្នែកទៀតមិនដំណើរការឡើយ

២) វត្តមានរបស់ប៉ូលីសចរាចរណ៍ដែលបញ្ឈរជើងនៅម្តុំច្រមុះជ្រូកមិនសូវគ្រប់គ្រាន់

៣) ការបត់ត្រឡប់របស់អ្នកបើកបរ ម្តុំច្រមុះជ្រូក

៤) ការជិះបញ្រ្ជាសផ្លូវក្បែរចិញ្ចើមផ្លូវ

៥) ការបើកបរមិនត្រង់ជួរ (ការបើកបរគ្មានសណ្តាប់ធ្នាប់)រវាងឡាន និងម៉ូតូ ឬយានយន្តផ្សេងទៀត

៦) ផ្លូវម្ខាងធំ ម្ខាងតូច

៧) ការមិនអធ្យាស្រ័យ

៨) ផ្សេងៗ

តាមការកត់សម្គាល់ ការកកស្ទះនៅពេលល្ងាចនេះបានផ្តល់ផលប៉ះពាល់ដល់អ្នកបើកបរ និងអ្នករស់នៅម្តុំនោះយ៉ាងខ្លាំង មានដូចជា៖

១) ខ្យល់មិនបរិសុទ្ធ

២) ភាពធុញថប់

៣) អាហារមិនស្អាត

៤) អាចនឹងប៉ះពារអ្នកបើកបរផ្សេងៗទៀត

៥) ពិបាកឆ្លងថ្នល់

៦) អារម្មណ៍មួរម៉ៅ

៧) អស់សាំងច្រើន

៨) ចំណាយពេលយូរក្នុងការបើកបរ

៩) ផ្សេងៗ

បើតាមការសង្កេត ដើម្បីសម្រួលចរាចរណ៍ ប៉ូលីសចរាចរណ៍បានឈរជើងប្រមាណជា ពីរទៅបីនាក់នៅម្តុំច្រមុះជ្រូកជាពិសេសគាត់បានសម្រួលចរាចរណ៍ ពីមហាវិថីព្រះមុន្នីវង្សទៅ ផ្លូវតេជោសម្តេច ហ៊ុន សែន។ សំណួរសួរថា ហេតុអ្វី ក៏មានពួកគាត់? ហេតុអ្វីភ្លើងស្តុបនៅលើផ្លូវ ២៧១ (យុទ្ធពលខេមរភូមិន្ទ) មិនដំណើរការ? ហេតុអ្វីមានទាំងប៉ូលីសចរាចរណ៍ និងភ្លើងស្តុបហើយ គឺនៅតែមានការកកស្ទះទៀត? តើគួរមានដំណោះស្រាយអ្វីខ្លះ?

ចំណោទបញ្ហាទី១ ដែលខ្ញុំរកឃើញ នោះគឺគំនូសបែងចែកផ្លូវរវាងផ្លូវឡាន និងម៉ូតូ។  បើពិនិត្យ នៅលើផ្លូវខាងក្រោម៖

១) ផ្លូវ ២៧១ (យុទ្ធពលខេមរភូមិន្ទ) សំដៅទៅស្ពាន ព្រះមុន្នីវង្ស (ស្ពានច្បារអំពៅ) ឬផ្លូវជាតិ២ (រូបទី១)

២) ការឆ្លងពីមហាវិថីព្រះមុន្នីវង្សទៅផ្លូវតេជោសម្តេច ហ៊ុន សែន កាត់តាមស្ថានីយ៍ប្រេងឥន្ធនៈ សូគីមិច (រូបទី២)

៣) ការបត់ត្រឡប់របស់អ្នកបើកបរ ដែលចុះពីស្ពាន ព្រះមុន្នីវង្ស (ស្ពានច្បារអំពៅ) ឬ ចេញពីមហាវិថីព្រះនរោត្តម (រូបទី៣)

៤) មហាវិថីព្រះមុន្នីវង្សទៅស្ពាន ព្រះមុន្នីវង្ស (ស្ពានច្បារអំពៅ) ឬផ្លូវជាតិ២ (រូបទី៤)

មិនមានគំនូសបែងចែកផ្លូវរវាងផ្លូវឡាន និងម៉ូតូទេ។ អ្នកបើកបរឡាន ប្រហែសជាបន្ទោសថា អ្នកបើកបរម៉ូតូជិះកណ្តាលផ្លូវ ឬបើកបរមិនដឹងទិសតំបន់។ ចំណែកឯអ្នកបើកបរម៉ូតូវិញ ប្រហែសជាបន្ទោសអ្នកបើកបរឡានថា ខ្លួនបើកមិនត្រង់ជួរ។ បើមានឡានបី នោះច្បាស់ជាបើកទន្ទឹមគ្នាទាំងបី មិនព្រមបើកបន្តកន្ទុយគ្នា ឲ្យត្រង់ជួរតែមួយនោះទេ។ បើបើកបររបៀបនេះ ចុះម៉ូតូបើកនៅត្រង់ណា? លើចិញ្ចើម ? បើកបញ្ជ្រាស? ឬបើកពីក្រោយឡាន? ទស្សនៈរបស់អ្នកបើកបរឡាន និងម៉ូតូខុសគ្នា។ ម៉្យាងទៀតចំនួនអ្នកបើកបរម៉ូតូនៅលើផ្លូវខាងលើក៏មានចំនួនច្រើនគួរឲ្យកត់សម្គាល់។ ប្រសិនជាគ្មានគំនូសបែកចែកឲ្យច្បាស់ទេ នោះគ្មាននរណាម្នាក់ខ្វល់ពីផលវិបាកនៃការកកស្ទះឡើយ សំខាន់គឺបានទៅដល់គោលដៅបានលឿន។

បញ្ហាទី២ គឺនៅត្រង់ភ្លើងស្តុប និងការឆ្លងផ្លូវចេញចូលផ្លូវសម្តេចតេជោ ហ៊ុន សែន។ ភ្លើងស្តុបខ្លះដើរ ខ្លះមិនដើរ។ ប៉ូលីសចរាចរណ៍ដើរតួជំនួសភ្លើងស្តុបដែលមិនដើរទៅវិញ។ ក្រោយពីផ្លូវសម្តេចដាក់ឲ្យដំណើរការមក មានអ្នកបើកបរជាច្រើនឆ្លងកាត់តាមផ្លូវនោះ ជាពិសេស ពី មហាវិថីព្រះមុន្នីវង្ស ទៅផ្លូវសម្តេចនោះ។ អ្នកបើកបរឆ្លងកាត់ច្រើនឡើងៗនៅចន្លោះម៉ោង ៥-៧ ល្ងាច។ ប្រសិនជាប៉ូលីសចរាចរណ៍មិនគ្រប់គ្រាន់ នោះការកកស្ទះនឹងមានរយៈពេលវែងផងដែរ។ ឧបមាថា គ្មានប៉ូលីស ឯភ្លើងស្តុបក៏មិនដើរទៀត តើនឹងមានរឿងអ្វីកើតឡើង?

បញ្ហាទី៣ គឹហេដ្ឋារចនាសម្ព័ន្ធនៅក្រោមស្ពានអាកាសក្បាលថ្នល់ និង នៅម្តុំច្រមុះជ្រូក។ នៅខាងក្រោមស្ពាន មានទីទំនេរធំ។ ទីទំនេរនោះប្រហែលជាមានប្រយោជន៍សម្រាប់អ្នកលក់ដូរចល័ត ម៉ូតូឌុបឬ អ្នកបើករ៉ូម៉ក អ្នកហាត់ប្រាណ ឬអ្នកថ្មើរជើងជាដើម។ បើនិយាយពីម្តុំច្រមុះជ្រូកវិញ ផ្លូវធំទូលាយល្អ។ ក៏ប៉ុន្តែ គ្រាន់តែបត់ត្រឡប់តែបន្តិច ក៏ស្ទះផ្លូវមួយភ្លែតដែរ។ ហើយបើប៉ូលីសមិនសម្រួសចរាចរណ៍មួយភ្លែត ការកកស្ទះនឹងកើតមានក្នុងប៉ុន្មានវិនាទី។

ដើម្បីដោះស្រាយបញ្ហាកកស្ទះនេះ លឺថានឹងមានស្ពានអាកាសមួយទៀតដែលនឹងត្រូវសាងសង់។ សំណួរសួរថា តើទាល់តែចំណាយលុយទើបបានអាចដោះស្រាយបញ្ហាបានឬ? បើគ្មានស្ពានអាកាសទេ នោះការកកស្ទះនឹងនៅតែមានឬ?


១) បង្កើតគំនូសផ្លូវបែងចែករវាងផ្លូវឡាន និងម៉ូតូនៅត្រង់ចំនុចផ្លូវដែលជាបញ្ហាខាងលើ(រូបទី៥)។ ឡានត្រូវបើកនៅជួររបស់ឡាន។ ទោះជាផ្លូវស្ទះយ៉ាងណា ក៏មិនអាចបើកចូលផ្លូវម៉ូតូដែរ។ ឡានបីមិនអាចបើកទន្ទឹមគ្នាលើផ្លូវតែមួយនោះទេ។ ម៉ូតូក៏មានផ្លូវម៉ូតូរបស់ខ្លួន។ ទោះចង់ជែង ឬវ៉ា ក៏ត្រូវនៅលើផ្លូវរបស់ខ្លួនដែរ។ ប្រសិនបើទឹកអណ្តូងមិនបំពានទឹកទន្លេ តើអាចទៅរួចទេ? ចុះផ្លូវរួមតូចនៅក្បែរស្ពាន តើបែងចែកគំនូសដោយរបៀបណាទៅ?

២) បន្ថែម និងដំណើរការភ្លើងស្តុបនៅម្តុំច្រមុះជ្រូក និងនៅក្រោមស្ពាន(រូបទី៦) ។ ការដាក់ភ្លើងស្តុបនៅក្រោមស្ពាន អាចបន្ថយចលនាចរាចរណ៍ចុះឡើងស្ពានបាន។ អ្នកបើកបរនីមួយៗមិនចាំបាច់សម្រុកមកកាន់ម្តុំច្រមុំជ្រូកលឿនពេក ឬក៏ត្រូវប្រញាប់ឡើងស្ពាននោះទេ។ អ្នកថ្មើរជើងក៏មានផ្លូវសម្រាប់ឆ្លងកាត់ដោយសុវត្ថិភាពនៅក្រោមស្ពាន។ ក៏ប៉ុន្តែតើគួរកែប្រែទីទំនេរនោះដែរឬទេ? ប្រសិនជាបង្រួមតូច តើល្អ ឬក៏គួររក្សាទុកដដែល ប៉ុន្តែដាំដើមឈើធំៗវិញ ដើម្បីឲ្យអ្នកដំណើរដែលរង់ចាំនៅស្តុបនោះអាចជ្រកក្រោមម្លប់បានខ្លះ? បើនិយាយពីម្តុំច្រមុះជ្រូកវិញ ភ្លើងស្តុបត្រូវបន្ថែមនៅគ្រប់ទិស។ ចុះចំពោះអ្នកបត់ត្រឡប់? តើមានវិធីអ្វីដែលអាចឲ្យការបត់ត្រឡប់នោះស្របច្បាប់ ហើយមិនបង្កជាការកកស្ទះចរាចរណ៍។ តើគួរបង្កើតរវង្វង់មូលនៅទីនោះទេ? បើមាន នោះគួរតែកុំឲ្យធំពេក ហើយគួរតែដាំដើមឈើធំៗប៉ុន្មានដើមដែរ ដើម្បីកុំឲ្យក្តៅខ្លាំងពេកពេលដែលរង់ចាំស្តុប។ ចុះ បើមានភ្លើងស្តុបដែលអនុញ្ញាតឲ្យមានការបត់ត្រឡប់ តើល្អដែរឬទេ? វាប្រហែលជាមិនពិបាកនោះទេ ប្រសិនជាមានការរៀបចំហេដ្ឋារចនាសម្ព័ន្ធឡើងវិញ។ វាក៏ប្រសើរជាងការដែលមានប៉ូលីសចរាចរណ៍ឈរសម្រួលចរាចរណ៍ទាំងក្តៅ ទាំងភ្លៀងនោះដែរ។

ទាំងពីរនេះជាវិធីសាស្ត្រដែលចំណាយលុយតិច បើធៀបនឹងការសាងសង់ស្ពាន ឬដំណោះស្រាយផ្សេងៗទៀតដែលខ្ញុំគិតមិនដល់។ ដើម្បីឲ្យការណ៍នេះសម្រេចទៅបាន ខ្ញុំសង្ឃឹមថានឹងមានការស្រាវជ្រាវបន្ថែមលើបញ្ហាកកស្ទះនៅប្លុកខាងលើនេះ។



ហេណា ម៉ៅ (០៦/០១/២០១៧)


បញ្ជាក់៖ រូបភាពនឹងត្រូវបញ្ចូលនៅពេលក្រោយ។

ADB@50 Essay Contest

Have you ever heard about ADB Essay Contest? Do you know what the topic is? Have you joined such competition?

To me, yes, I have.

I am not the winner. Anyway, I just want to share mine to you. Feel free to read.


ADB’s Development Impact In Cambodia And

Possible Areas Of Future Cooperation



It is just like a blink of an eye. Suddenly, more than thirty years after the Khmer Rouge regime has been passed away. With the support of other countries and the effort of Cambodian’s Government and the people living in Cambodia, many things have been changed and solved through the development both in rural and urban area.  The support of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) is one part of Cambodian’s developments in term of economic and social development. However, even so, there are still some issues that Cambodian’s Government has to deal with and need many kinds of support from ADB.

In fact, according to the ADB Country Partnership Strategy (Cambodia) published on November 2014, the Rectangular Strategy for Growth, Employment, Equity and Efficiency, Phase III (RSIII) provides the development policies from 2013 to 2018 which covers good governance, agriculture, physical infrastructure, private sector development and employment, capacity development and human resources development and creation of a conducive environment for the RSIII. As known, according to ADB member fact sheet published on April 2016, since joining the ADB in 1966, ADB has been supporting Cambodian’s Government on many areas such as on the development of physical infrastructure, education, public sector management, the private and finance sectors, and the management of agriculture and natural resources. Cambodia has received $2.65 billion in ADB lending, grants, and technical assistance since then. Precisely, between 2010 and 2014, 96,000 rural households with access to improved water supply; almost 50,000 households with new or improved sanitation; 330 kilometers of new or upgraded power transmission lines, connecting 40,000 rural households to lower-priced electricity; and 621 kilometers of new or upgraded roads, improving access to markets and social services were helped to provide by ADB according to the face sheet above. In term of education system, more than 200,000 secondary school students benefit from new or improved educational facilities. Around 200 teachers were trained to higher competency standards. Therefore, many sectors have been supported to Cambodia and due to such support, there are many changes.

Where ADB still keeps support the Cambodian’s Government, there are three main pressing development issues facing Cambodia today. Those are firstly the national reconciliation related to Khmer Rouge regime, a job opportunity for beggar and homeless people who are an elder people and old people with disability living in Phnom Penh and lastly the circulation of foreign currency in Cambodia.

The first main issue is about the national reconciliation in the context of an establishment of Extraordinary Chamber in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC or Khmer Rouge Tribunal) and Non-Judicial Measure (Reparation Projects). According to Estelle Bockers, Nadine Stammel and Christine Knaevelsrud, one quarter of Cambodian population was killed during Khmer Rouge regime due to malnutrition, overwork and mass killings. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), depression, and feelings of anger and revenge still keep existing in the Cambodian postconflict society. Therefore, the Khmer Rouge Tribunal has been established and is currently handling four cases: Case 001 (Kaing Guek Eav alias Duch), Case 002 (Khieu Samphan & Nuon Chea), Case 003 (Meas Muth) and Case 004 (Im Chaem, Yim Tith & Ao An). Besides ECCC, many Non-Government Organizations such as Kdei Karuna Organization, Youth Resource Development Program (YRDP), and Meta House in collaboration with Khmer Arts Action and Youth for Peace have created many non-judicial reparation projects in the purpose of national reconciliation. Even so, there are some issues that ADB could support too.

The second issue is a job opportunity for beggar and homeless people who are an elder people and old people with disability living in Phnom Penh. “A parent can feed ten children, but ten children can’t feed their parent.”, an old Khmer proverb said. As seen, there are many beggar and homeless people in Phnom Penh. They are everywhere such at the market, along the street, at the river bank, at the park, etc. Referring to Phnom Penh post published on 10th May 2012, the living situation of poor elderly people was not good. For instance, a seventy-seven years old lady named Ven Rin said that she swept away the rubbish at the temple at 6 am and went out until 6 or 7 at night to earn whatever she could. She lived very painfully during the Khmer Rouge regime and until today, she has still suffered many hardships of old age and poverty. Through this post, to make a living, poor older people, maybe above 55 years old, become a beggar. They may start begging from 7 o’clock in the morning to 10 o’clock at night. Besides working and begging, some elderly people rely on the support from their children, neighbour and community. But their living standard is still poor. Anyway, according to Phnom Penh post published on 25th March 2015, there are many types of disability people such as physical, hearing, intellectual and speech disabilities. Through this post, in Cambodia, people with disabilities are invisible. An article on National Network Meeting of Cambodian Disabled People’s Organization (CDPO) has also stated that people with disabilities face many issues such as lack of ramp accessibility in schools, health centers, lack of accessibility to receive information, limitation opportunities in employment and political rights. Those two groups of people need a stable well-paid job which they could have a good living standard as others. Therefore, ADB could do something to help them.

Last but not least, the circulation of foreign currency in Cambodia is also the main issue that the Cambodian’s Government needs to deal with too. In fact, the riel is the currency of Cambodia. However, majority of people living in Cambodia prefer using foreign currency – U.S. dollars – which is held in the form of cash in circulation and banking deposits (Reat Viseth, K., 2002). Besides U.S. dollars, some people living at the border of Thailand and Vietnam prefer circulating Thai baht (Reat Viseth, K., 2002) and Vietnamese dong (Tal Nay Im and Michel Dabadie, 2007) rather than Cambodian riel. Confidence in the Riel remained low (Tal Nay Im and Michel Dabadie, 2007). According to Mr. Kem Reat Viseth, currency substitution hinders the National Bank of Cambodia in running an effective monetary policy. Similarly, as Nombulelo Duma said, there are some costs associated with dollarization including loss of monetary policy and loss of seigniorage. Therefore, without taking enough control from the Government, the circulation of foreign currency in Cambodia would become disaster in the next thirty years.

In order to solve the main three problems above, ADB can effectively address critical development issues and better support Cambodia to go forward by supporting government, non-government organization and private sector.

The first thing that ADB could do is to collaborate with government and non-government organizations related to the national reconciliation in the context of reparation project (non-judicial measure). For instance, a Forest Of Remembrance Project conducted by Youth Resource Development Program (YRDP). A Victim Support Section in collaboration with Civil Party Lead Co-Lawyers Section is working actively to support a Forest of Remembrance Project. This project has been presented to civil parties. However, there is one main problem that has not yet been solved: a public space. The tree is a symbol of remembrance of the Khmer rouge regime which will be planted by the representatives from the government, the victims of the Khmer rouge regime and the youths. I could say that peace, reconciliation and remembrance will be found in National Reconciliation through Nature because we all love nation and nature as ourselves. The next generation will always remember that regime and might not follow the same path as the former leaders of that regime. If ADB could support such kind of project especially in dealing with the government to provide a public place to build such trees, then it would be awesome.

The second thing that ADB could take part is to cooperate with the Government, private company or Non-Government Organization (NGO) in order to provide a job opportunity to beggars or homeless people who are an elderly people or an old people with disability living in Phnom Penh. Those groups of people might need a shelter, three times meal, and a weekly-paid job. If there are places that could provide these three things, I do believe that they would be happy to go there. They could be trained in the craftsmanship or could work in the rice field or in the farm. They could be a babysitter also. The matter is how those kinds of job will be heard to them? Normally, there are Human Resource Agency Companies but they don’t work directly with the poor and if there are places looking for them, they just announce on website or post on some postable places in Phnom Penh. If the NGO or the Ministry of Social Affair could work directly with them and check out their skill, then, if there is a suitable position, they could go to meet them at their house or the place where they usually stand by in order to inform that, then I do believe that they will give a try to work and stay there. The beggars and homeless people might have been suffered from discrimination because as observed, not all people are happy to give some money to them. Therefore, ADB could provide some funds to NGO and the Government to find a working place for them. No matter the working place is located in Phnom Penh or in the provinces, it doesn’t matter. What matter the most is that they can have a shelter, a three times meal and a weekly-paid job.

The last thing that ADB could do is to take part in controlling a circulation of foreign currency in Cambodia. Nowadays, the main foreign currency is U.S dollars. ADB could start working as a pilot project with private company such as Lucky Supermarket, and AEON mall etc. As observed, at some supermarkets, 1$ is equal to 4,100 riel. If the buyer could pay in riel, it would be great. The matter is they prefer U.S dollar. In order to change that concept, ADB could take part in this circulation by paying some amounts of money on behalf of the buyers. To illustrate more, below is the example:

Standard Exchange Rate Payment paid by Buyer

in Riel

The rest payment paid by

ADB in Riel

1$ = 4,100 riel 1$ = 3,900 riel 200 riel


This method is about encouraging buyers to pay in Riel whether in cash or via a visa card. Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) between ADB and private company are really important. Once the buyers have been informed that the 200 riel, for example, is taken over by ADB, then the buyers might be happy to pay in Riel rather than in U.S dollar because they know that they save some money in their pocket.

In conclusion, the national reconciliation, a job opportunity for beggars and homeless people and the circulation of foreign currency in Cambodia are the three main issues that ADB should support Cambodia for future development. While many trees are planted and treated as a memorable and valuable gift for the next generation, the next and next generation will always remember ADB. Moreover, after the beggars and homeless people could get a job, have a shelter and have enough food, they have no need to work on the street. Then, their absent will also bring a beauty to the city. At last, ADB has played another important role to support Cambodian’s Government in dealing with currency substitution which is one of the hardest things for a developing country.


ADB Country Partnership Strategy. (2014, November). Cambodia 2014 – 2018 [Fact sheet]. Retrieved from http://www.adb.org/documents/cambodia-country-partnership-strategy-2014-2018

Asian Development Bank and Cambodia. (2016, April). Cambodia [Fact sheet]. Retrieved from


Bockers, E., Stammel., N, & Knaevelsrud, C. (2011). Reconciliation in Cambodia: thirty years after the terror of the Khmer Rouge regime.

Duma, N. (2001). Dollarization in Cambodia: Causes and Policy Implication.

Fably, P. & Nara, L. (2002, May 10). Growing old: the plight of the elderly. Retrieved from


Introduction to the ECCC. Retrieved from https://eccc.gov.kh/en/about-eccc/introduction

National Network Meeting. Retrieved from


Reat Viseth, K. (2002). Currency substitution and financial sector developments in Cambodia.

Tal Nay Im, T. & Dabadie, M. (2007, March 31).  Dollarization in Cambodia.

Where are the people with disabilities in Cambodia?. (2015, March 20). Retrieved from



Mine is so simple. Still it means a lot to me.

Here is the pdf: adb50-essay-contest_miss-mao-chamna

All the best,

Henna Mao (01/Jan/2017)

Love Nature As Yourself